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暴雨条件下灌木对边坡稳定性的影响模拟试验
祁玉超1,2, 兰惠娟1,2, 王道杰1, 何松膛1,2, 方迎潮3, 陈文乐3, 赵鹏1,2, 裴曾莉1,2, 田雨4
1.中国科学院、水利部 成都山地灾害与环境研究所 山地灾害与地表过程重点实验室, 四川 成都 610041;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.国家管网集团西南管道有限责任公司, 四川 成都 610041;4.四川省富顺县城关中学, 四川 自贡 643200
摘要:
[目的] 研究暴雨条件下不同灌木种植模式对不同坡度边坡的固坡效应,探索灌木固坡发挥效用的临界坡度,为生态工程措施在山地灾害防治中的应用提供科学依据。[方法] 通过制作灌木模型开展室内降雨试验,探究4种坡度(20°,35°,50°,60°)条件下4种灌木种植模式(稀植、适中种植、密植、裸坡)对边坡稳定性的影响,并利用考虑灌木自重和根系牵引力影响下的修正公式计算边坡安全系数(Fs)。[结果] ①20°和35°的灌木边坡发生沟蚀破坏,与种植模式无关;裸坡、50°灌木边坡和60°稀植、密植灌木边坡发生渐进式破坏;60°适中种植灌木边坡发生整体滑移式破坏。②在20°和35°边坡上种植灌木能够在降雨过程中有效增强边坡的稳定性,减少4%~70%坍塌量;在50°和60°边坡上种植灌木不仅会降低边坡的稳定性,还会增加10%~33%的坍塌量。[结论] 灌木固坡不能简单归结为有效或者无效,和坡体的坡度密切相关,因此要注意不同坡度上种植方式的选择。
关键词:  滑坡治理  生态措施  模型试验  人造根  灌木种植模式
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.009
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“大规模灾害风险评估及综合调控原理和模式”(41790434);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)“美丽中国”(XDA230090403);中国科学院、水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所所青年基金项目(SDS-QN-2108)
Simulated Experiment on Effects of Shrub on Slope Stability Under Rainstorm Condition
Qi Yuchao1,2, Lan Huijuan1,2, Wang Daojie1, He Songtang1,2, Fang Yingchao3, Chen Wenle3, Zhao Peng1,2, Pei Zengli1,2, Tian Yu4
1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface Process, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China;2.University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3.Pipe China Southwest Pipeline Company, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China;4.Sichuan Province Fushun Chengguan Middle School, Zigong, Sichuan 643200, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of different shrub planting patterns on slope stability with different slope degrees under rainstorm condition were studied to explore the critical slope degrees for shrubs to stabilize slopes, and to provide a scientific basis for scientific biological engineering to manage mountain disasters. [Methods] Indoor rainfall experiments were carried out by making shrub models to explore the impact of four shrub planting modes (sparse planting, moderate planting, dense planting, bare slope) on slope stability on slopes with different slope degrees (20°, 35°, 50°, 60°). The slope safety factor (Fs) was calculated by using a correction formula considering the influence of shrub weight and root traction. [Results] ① Gully erosion occurred on shrub slopes at 20° and 35°, which was independent of the planting mode; On bare slopes, 50° shrub slopes, and 60° sparsely and densely planted shrub slopes, the damage occurred progressively; Overall slipping failure occurred on moderately planted shrub slopes of 60°. ② Planting shrubs on gentle slopes of 20° and 35° could effectively enhance the stability of the slope during rainfall and reduce the amount of collapse by 4% to 70%; Planting shrubs on steep slopes of 50° and 60° could not only decrease the stability of the slope, but also increase the amount of collapse by 10% to 33%. [Conclusion] Slope stabilization by shrubs can not be simply attributed to effective or ineffective, it is closely related to the slope gradient, so attention should be paid to the choice of planting methods on different slopes.
Key words:  landslide control  ecological measures  model experimental  artificial roots  shrub planting patterns