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小流域输沙模数多年总体状况的描述方法研究
李智广1, 赵力毅2
1.水利部 水土保持监测中心, 北京 100055;2.黄河水土保持天水治理监督局, 甘肃 天水 74100
摘要:
[目的] 研究各种小流域输沙模数的多年观测数据分析法的优缺点和适用性,为甄选描述多年输沙模数数据特征的科学方法提供借鉴。[方法] 针对4条小流域观测数据,通过统计特征值、去极值算术平均值、侵蚀强度分级年数频率、盒须图等4种方法及其组合方法的比较分析,研究具有广泛适用性和严格科学性的多年输沙模数描述方法。[结果] 统计学上的算术平均数、中值等难以表征多年输沙模数的集中性和一般水平。去极值算术平均值虽具有反映数据一般水平的趋势,但损失了极端值及其对决策的信息价值。侵蚀强度分级年数频率反映了不同量级输沙模数数据在强度分级上的分布。盒须图可全面显示数据的集中程度、分散情况以及异常数据的数值与个数。[结论] 在表征小流域多年输沙模数数据特征上,不同的方法各有优点和不足,为全面、客观地描述其集中性和分散性,可采用多种方法,扬长避短、配合使用,盒须图具有较好的客观性和适用性。
关键词:  小流域  输沙模数  多年总体状态  描述方法  多年平均值  盒须图
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.018
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题“生态治理与生态文明建设生态技术筛选配置与试验示范”(2016YFC0503705);全国水土流失动态监测项目和国家水土保持监测点优化布局项目(126216229000200002)
A Study on Description Methods of Sediment Transport Modulus in Small Watersheds
Li Zhiguang1, Zhao Liyi2
1.The Center of Soil and Water Conservation Monitoring, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100055, China;2.Tianshui Governance and Supervision Bureau of Yellow River Soil and Water Conservation, Tianshui, Gansu 74100, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The advantages, disadvantages and applicability of various analysis methods of multi-year observation data of sediment transport modulus in small watersheds were studied, in order to provide references for selecting scientific methods to describe the characteristics of multi-year sediment transport modulus observation data. [Methods] Based on the observation data of sediment transport modulus in four small watersheds, through the comparative analysis of four methods and their combinations, including statistical eigenvalue, de-extremum arithmetic mean, frequency of erosion intensity grade, and box-whisker plot, the description methods with wide applicability and objectivity were explored. [Results] The statistical arithmetic mean and median could hardly represent the concentration and general level of multi-year sediment transport modulus. Although the de-extremum arithmetic mean had the tendency of reflecting the general level of data, it sacrificed the extreme value and its information for decision-making. The frequency of erosion intensity grade reflected the distribution of data in intensity classification. Box-whisker plot could show the concentration, dispersion and the number of abnormal data. [Conclusion] Various methods have their own advantages and disadvantages in characterizing the multi-year observation data. In order to describe their concentration and dispersion comprehensively and objectively, various methods can be used to make full use of their advantages and avoid their disadvantages. Box-whisker plot has good objectivity and applicability in displaying the multi-year data of small watershed.
Key words:  small watershed  sediment transport modulus  general situation of many years  description methods  multi-year average  box-whisker plot