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西藏高寒地区不同边坡生态修复类型土壤的肥力变化
朱蒙恩1, 沙利云2, 周明涛3, 尉军耀4, 胡旭东3, 杜颖3
1.华电西藏能源有限公司DG水电分公司, 西藏 山南 856200;2.云南华辰水电工程咨询有限公司, 云南 昆明 650000;3.三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心, 三峡大学, 湖北 宜昌 443002;4.中国电建集团西北勘测设计研究院有限公司, 陕西 西安 710000
摘要:
[目的] 对西藏DG水电站6种不同边坡生态修复类型土壤的肥力变化进行对比研究,为西藏水电工程扰动区生态环境的修复提供理论依据和技术支撑。[方法] 采用实地测量和室内试验等方法,分析不同边坡生态修复类型的肥力变化特征及植被生长情况,并用相关性分析确定边坡土壤肥力时空变化与植被生长情况之间的相关性,探讨影响边坡植被生长土壤的肥力主控因素。[结果] 在6种边坡生态修复类型土壤中有机质和氮元素波动变化均较大,随季节变化呈现先降低后增加再降低的趋势,而pH值、速效磷、速效钾变化相对较小。从不同边坡对比结果来看,边坡的土壤养分含量从高到低依次均为:弃土弃渣地 > 土质边坡 > 一般施工场地 > 土石混合边坡 > 岩质边坡 > 施工硬化地表,不同边坡的植被恢复生长状况方面,与土壤养分含量呈现相同的排序。各肥力指标中氨氮、硝氮、速效磷与植被生长情况的相关性最高,其次为速效钾、有机质,而与pH值相关性最低,说明氨氮、硝氮、速效磷对边坡植被生长效果的影响较大。[结论] 在不同边坡的土壤肥力状况中,弃土弃渣地表现最佳,而岩质边坡和施工硬化地表均表现较差,且土壤肥力中氨氮、硝氮、速效磷含量与植被生长情况紧密相关。
关键词:  DG水电站  边坡生态修复  肥力变化  植被生境  主控因素  西藏
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2021.04.023
分类号:X820.3;TV212
基金项目:中国华电集团公司科研基金项目“高寒高海拔地区水电工程施工干扰植被修复技术研究与示范”(12IJD201800018);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0504902-02)
Soil Fertility Changes of Various Slope Ecological Restoration Types in Tibet Alpine Region
Zhu Mengen1, Sha Liyun2, Zhou Mingtao3, Wei Junyao4, Hu Xudong3, Du Ying3
1.DG Hydropower Branch, Huadian Tibetan Energy Co., Ltd., Shannan, Tibet 856200, China;2.Yunnan Huachen Hydropower Engineering Consulting Co., Ltd, Kunming, Yunnan 650000, China;3.Engineering Research Center of Eco-environment in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, China;4.Northwest Engineering Co., Ltd, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] A comparative study of the fertility changes in six different slope ecological restoration types was conducted, in order to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the ecological environment restoration in the DG hydropower project disturbed area, Tibet, China. [Methods] Field measurement and laboratory tests were conducted to analyze the fertility change characteristics and vegetation growth status in different types of slope ecological restoration. The spatio-temporal changes of soil fertility and its correlation with vegetation growth were determined by the correlation analysis method, and the main control factors of the fertility in vegetation growth were discussed as well. [Results] The fluctuation of organic matter and nitrogen elements changed greatly in the six types of slope ecological restoration, which decreased first, then increased, and decreased finally with the seasonal change, while the change of pH value, available phosphorus and available potassium were relatively small. From the comparison of different slopes, the soil fertility from high to low showed as: spoil ground > soil slope > general construction site > earth rock mixed slope > rock slope > construction hardened surface. The vegetation restoration and growth status of different slopes showed the same order as the soil nutrient content. The ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and available phosphorus had the highest correlation with vegetation growth, followed by available potassium and organic matter, while pH value had the lowest correlation, indicating that ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and available phosphorus had the greatest impacts on slope vegetation growth. [Conclusion] Among the fertility conditions of different slopes, the performance of spoil ground is the best, while the restoration of rock slope and construction hardened surface is the poorest, and the contents of ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and available phosphorus in fertility are closely related to vegetation growth.
Key words:  DG hydropower project  slope ecological restoration  fertility changes  vegetation habitat  controlling factors  Tibet