2014年度新疆研究生科研创新项目(XJGRI2014079); 国家国际科技合作计划资助(2010DFA92720-13); 新疆维吾尔自治区土壤学重点学科资助
[目的] 探究作物生育期需水量的变化趋势及其与气象因子的关系,为气候变化下农作物灌溉排水决策提供理论基础. [方法] 基于联合国粮农组织(FAO)推荐的参考作物蒸散计算方法和相关作物系数,利用石河子地区1954—2012年逐日气温、降水、日照时数、风速、相对湿度等资料,计算石河子地区冬小麦近59 a作物需水量和灌溉需水量,并探究其气候趋势变化的影响. [结果] (1) 过去50 a,石河子垦区冬小麦需水量总体呈增加趋势,越冬—返青期增势最为明显(气候倾向率为2.65 mm/10 a);拔节—抽穗期冬小麦需水量最大,为130.23 mm.(2) 灌溉需水量总体呈减少趋势,其中拔节—抽穗期灌溉需水量最大(平均值为88.65 mm)且减少趋势最为明显(气候倾向率为-3.11 mm/10 a).(3) 气象因子对冬小麦不同生育期的需水量和灌溉需水量有很强的相关性,其中冬小麦生育后期需水量与气象因子有极强的相关性;气象因子中,降水对于灌溉需水量影响最大. [结论] 气候变化下,石河子地区冬小麦作物需水量呈增加趋势,但降雨量的增加趋势下,灌溉需水量总体呈减少趋势.
[Objective] The object of this study is to investigate the variation trend of crop water requirement and its correlation with climatic factors, so as to provide references for decision making in crop irrigation and drainage. [Methods] The crop water requirement and irrigation requirement of winter wheat in Shihezi region were calculated based on evapotranspiration calculation approach recommended by United Nations FAO and crop coefficient from 1961 to 2012. The variation trend and its climatic causes were analyzed for the crop water requirement and irrigation of winter wheat. [Results] (1) The crop water requirement of winter wheat showed a significant decreasing trend, and the greatest increase occurred at the overwintering and turning green stage with a rate of 2.65 mm/10 a. Winter wheat required the most water at the jointing to heading stage (130.23 mm). (2) In contrast, irrigation water requirement of winter wheat at different growth stages showed a decreasing trend with a rate of -3.11 mm/10 a. The irrigation water requirement of winter wheat was the most at the jointing to heading stage (88.65 mm). (3) Climatic factors such as precipitation, temperature, relative humid, sunshine duration, water pressure, wind speed, showed a strong correlation with the crop water requirement and irrigation requirement of winter wheat. Extremely significant correlation was found between precipitation and the crop water requirement and irrigation requirement of winter wheat. [Conclusion] Although water requirement of winter wheat increased during the past 52 years, the irrigation requirement of winter wheat showed a decreasing trend, which caused by the increase of precipitation.