[目的] 设计水土保持电声沙盘模型,为水土保持教学提供更为直观性的动态演示效果. [方法] 以典型小流域为基本蓝本,依据光、电、声系统对流域基本特征、水土流失类型、水土保持措施进行演示,借助微型人工模拟降雨系统演示不同降雨强度、降雨类型情况下的水土流失强度、水土保持措施效益、水土保持监测情况. [结果] 水土保持电声沙盘模型实际上是把一个简化的小流域分为12个大的演示区域,该模型侧重地形地貌、地物特征表达以及地理特点、自然要素的表现,能演示流域的边界及与周边流域的联系,典型小流域系统的基本组成要素,水土保持生物措施和工程措施,水文网系统的组成及汇流过程. [结论] 水土保持电声沙盘具有仿真性、趣味性、体验性、自主性、互动性,能增强学生学习的兴趣和主动性,提高教学效果.
[Objective] To design the soil-electric-acoustic sand table model in order to provide a more intuitive dynamic demonstration model for soil and water conservation education. [Methods] Based on the characteristics of a small watershed, the type of soil erosion, and soil and water conservation measures were demonstrated with the light, electricity and sound system. The soil erosion intensity, the soil and water conservation measures and the monitoring of soil and water conservation were demonstrated with the aid of the miniature artificial rainfall system. [Results] The soil-electronic sand table model was actually a simplified small watershed, which was divided into 12 large demonstration areas. The model focused on the expression of topography, terrain and geographical characteristics of natural elements. It could demonstrated the watershed boundary and its relations with adjacent watersheds, the basic elements of watershed system, biological and engineering measures for soil and water conservation, hydrological network system composition and concentration process. [Conclusion] The soil-electronic-acoustic model could provide an emulative, interesting, experience, autonomic and interactive model for soil and water conservation teaching, and could enhance the students' learning interest and initiative, and improve the teaching effect.