[目的] 探究中国西南湿润地区流域生态需水量计算方法,为流域水资源配置提供科学的数据参考. [方法] 选择贵州省盐津河流域为研究对象,采用彭曼法、Kristensen-Jensen模型、MIKE SHE分布式水文模型(DHI)、环境功能设定法等方法从农田系统、林草系统、水生态系统计算流域最小及满意需水量,并结合水资源状况对盐津河水资源配置提出建议. [结果] 盐津河总生态需水量为1.39×107~2.04×107 m3,流域内农田用水较多的是4,7和8月,林草系统不存在缺水现象,河道内枯水期及丰水期水量差距较大,可利用水量为3.84×107~9.17×107 m3,在保证枯水期生态水量同时,取水时间主要在5—8月. [结论] 河道取水应注意考虑农田作物用水规律,在预留农业用水时需要考虑作物类型及种植面积,严格遵循降雨及生态用水规律,建立蓄水设施,保证全年的生产生态用水.
[Objection] The objective of this study is to explore the ecological water demand calculation method in the southwest wet regions in order to provide scientific data for water resources allocation in karst areas. [Methods] We took Yanjin river basin in Guizhou Province as a case study. The Penman method, Kristensen-Jensen model, Mike SHE distributed hydrological model(DHI), and environmental function setting method was employed to calculate the optimal water demand from farmland, forest and grass ecosystems, water ecosystems in Yanjin river. [Results] The total amount of ecological water demand in Yanjin river was 1.39×107 m3 to 2.04×107 m3. Agricultural water demand in the basin was the most in April, July and August. The forest grass system didn't show the phenomenon of water lacking. The differences in water amount between dry season and abundant water period in the river were great, and the amount of available water was 3.84×107 m3 to 9.17×107 m3. To ensure the balance of ecological water, the main time of water intake was from May to August. [Conclusion] Farm crop water demand need to be concerned when water was taken from the river. The crop types and planting area also need to be considered when agriculture water was reserved. Moreover, we need to follow the rules of rainfall and ecological water use, to ensure the production of ecological water all the year round.