[目的] 分析中国铁路泥石流灾害的分布特征及其变化规律,以期为中国铁路防灾减灾提供依据. [方法] 基于1951—1996年来的中国铁路泥石流灾害资料,对中国铁路泥石流灾害频次、时空分布特征及其变化进行分析. [结果] 1951—1996年,全国铁路年均发生17.5次泥石流灾害,其中重大泥石流灾害3.8次.1964,1979,1981年是铁路泥石流灾害较为严重的年份.铁路泥石流灾害主要发生在6—8月,其中8月发生次数最多,占总数的40.2%,6—8月这3个月的灾害次数占总数的90%以上.从铁路泥石流灾害的地域分布来看,主要分布在西南、西北和华北地区,发生泥石流灾害最多的线路是陇海线,其次是东川线、成昆线和宝成线. [结论] 泥石流灾害是各种内外因素综合作用的结果.除了暴雨、不良地形及地质条件客观原因之外,一些人为因素也往往是诱因.
[Objective] The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal and spatial distributions of debris flow of China railways in order to provide basis for debris disaster prevention of China railway. [Methods] Based on the debris flow disaster data of China railway during 1951—1996, the frequency, spatio-temporal distribution and their dynamic characteristics were analyzed. [Results] During the period of 1951—1996, there were 17.5 times debris flow disaster events each year in China railway, and among them, 3.8 times were serious debris flow disaster events. The most serious debris flow disaster events occurred in the year of 1964, 1979 and 1981. The debris flow disasters mainly took place from June to August(account for 90%), and August was the peak season(account for 40.2%). As to the regional distribution of debris flow disasters of China railway, the disasters mainly occurred in Southwest, Northwest and North China. The most disaster events occurred in Longhai line, and followed by the Dongchuan, Chengkun and Baocheng lines. [Conclusion] Debris flow disaster is the result of various internal and external factors. Except for factors such as heavy rain, bad terrain and geological conditions, human activities are the main causes for debris flow disaster.