[目的] 定量测算煤炭资源开采对农用地生态环境影响，构建矿产资源开发与农用地生态补偿新机制。[方法] 以黑龙江省粮食主产区鸡西市东山煤矿为例，采用市场价值法、排污费及机会成本法。[结果] （1）煤炭资源开发直接影响农用地完整性及粮食生产，间接影响生态环境及矿区居民健康。（2）资源开发企业造成生态损失由破坏及受益企业承担补偿，不明确破坏主体及历史遗留矿山生态环境损害由政府作为生态补偿主体；矿产资源开发对现代农业产区水土资源造成长期及不可逆转性的生态环境损害，土地整理复垦及高标准农田建设是粮食主产区重要补偿客体，生态环境治理区及矿区居民也是补偿客体。（3）鸡西市东山煤矿开采与农用地生态补偿为947.20万元/a，补偿标准为煤炭产值的2.92%。（4）政府以财政转移支付作为生态补偿方式，矿产开发企业以资源开采与农业生态补偿标准形成保证金制度，保证履行生态治理义务。[结论] 粮食主产区煤炭资源开发与农用地生态补偿机制应构建以受益企业及政府为补偿主体、土地整理复垦及高标准农田建设项目区、生态环境治理区及矿区居民为补偿客体，测算煤炭开发对农用地的直接及间接影响作为补偿标准，建立多元化的补偿方式。
[Objective] We aim to investigate the impacts of coal resources exploitation on ecological environment of agricultural land, in order to establish the new mechanism for the development of mineral resources and agricultural land ecological compensation.[Methods] Taking the Dongshan mine in Jixi City, the major grain producing areas of Heilingjiang Province as an example, this study employed market value method, pollution discharge fee and opportunity cost methods.[Results] (1) The development of coal resources directly affected the integrity of farmland and grain production, while indirectly affected ecological environment and the health of residents in mining area. (2) The losses from the destruction of ecological damage caused by enterprise development should be compensated by the benefiting enterprise. Destroy with unclear subject and historical mining ecological environment damage should be compensated by the government. Mineral resources development had long-term and irreversible damage to ecological environment of water and soil resources in modern agricultural region. Land consolidation reclamation and high standard farmland construction was the main compensation object in grain producing areas. Residents in ecological environment control and mining area were the compensation object as well. (3) The value of coal resources and farmland ecological compensation standard was 9 472 thousand yuan/a in Dongshan mine, which accounted for 2.92% of the coal production. (4) The government fiscal transfer payment as ecological compensation mode, while the mineral enterprises formed the system of deposit by using resources exploitation and development of standard agricultural ecological compensation system, to guarantee the fulfillment of ecological management.[Conclusion] We should establish a diversified compensation mode which took the benefiting enterprise and government as the main compensation subject, the land consolidation reclamation and high standard farmland construction, the residents in ecological environment control and mining area as the main compensation object, measuring the coal development of direct and indirect effects of agricultural land as the compensation standard.