[目的] 遵循黄河流域生态保护和高质量发展国家战略（简称“黄河国家战略”）赋予黄河流域水土保持工作的新使命，分析黄河流域水土保持面临的重大挑战，旨在为黄河流域生态建设的高质量发展提供参考。[方法] 基于“黄河国家战略”的需求，结合长期的野外考察和学术研究成果，对新时期黄河流域水土保持发展战略目标的转变进行了重点分析和探讨。[结果] 新中国成立以来，通过70 a余的持续治理，黄河泥沙显著减少，流域生态环境明显好转，但目前仍存在一些问题：①空间治理不均衡，局部地区水土流失依然严重；②人工植被系统空间结构雷同化，生态系统不稳定；③缺乏景观格局优化配置，难以有效解决黄土高原生态系统由“绿”变“稳”的问题；④生态治理的功能性机制性问题凸显，影响水土保持的可持续发展。新时期的水土保持肩负着高质量发展根基的新使命，其本身也面临着战略定位和发展方式的转变，以及传统理论内涵和理念更新的重大挑战。因此，迫切需要研究严重制约生态治理效益与生态经济协同发展提质增效的关键技术难题，以及促进新时期黄河流域水土保持事业发展的对策。[结论] “黄河国家战略”的实施必将大大推进黄河流域水土保持事业的发展。黄河流域生态治理研究应着力解决高质量发展中生态保护治理的一系列关键科技问题，将水土保持战略目标由低标准大面积治理转向精致和精准治理，提升水土保持在推动黄河流域高质量发展中的地位和作用。
[Objective] According to a new mission given by the national strategy of ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River basin (abbreviated as “Yellow River National Strategy”), the major challenges faced by soil and water conservation were analyzed in order to provide references for the high quality development of ecological construction in the Yellow River basin.[Methods] Based on the requirements of the “Yellow River National Strategy”, combined with long-term field investigations and academic research results, the development goal of soil and water conservation in the Yellow River basin in the new era was analyzed and considered.[Results] Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, through more than 70 years of management, sediments of the Yellow River has been significantly reduced, and the ecological environment of the basin been improved obviously. However, there are still some problems: ① The imbalance of spatial management, and soil erosion in some areas is still serious; ② The spatial structure of artificial vegetation system is similar, and the ecosystem is unstable; ③ The ecosystem construction lacks the optimal configuration of landscape patterns, which makes it difficult to solve the transformation of the vegetation ecosystem on the Loess Plateau from “green” to “stable” effectively; ④ The functional and mechanism problems of ecological governance are prominent and affects the sustainable development of soil and water conservation. Soil and water conservation in the new era shoulders the new mission of high-quality development, and it is also facing the change of strategic positioning and development mode, as well as the major challenges of updating traditional theoretical connotations and concepts. Therefore, it is urgent to study the key technical problems that seriously restrict the coordinated development of ecological management benefits and ecological economy, and to promote the development of soil and water conservation in the Yellow River basin in the new era.[Conclusion] The implementation of the “Yellow River National Strategy” will greatly promote the development of soil and water conservation in the Yellow River basin. Researches on ecological management of the Yellow River basin should focus on solving a series of key scientific and technological problems of ecological protection and management in high-quality development. The strategic goal of soil and water conservation should be changed from low standard and covering large area to delicate and accurate management, and to enhancing the role of soil and water conservation in promoting high-quality development of the Yellow River basin.