[目的] 探索影响吉林省玉米主产区土壤真菌群落结构的主要驱动因子，为该省土壤质量恢复提供理论依据。[方法] 根据吉林省的生态环境和气候因素，将吉林省分为东部湿润山区、中部半湿润平原区和西部半干旱平原区，以这3个区域的玉米种植区土壤为主要研究对象，采用高通量测序技术，分析了土壤真菌群落组成，并通过典范对应分析法进一步分析化学性质、酶活性特征、以及环境因子对真菌群落的影响。[结果] 3个玉米种植区的土壤化学性质和酶活性特征的差异性显著；土壤真菌多样性差异不显著，真菌菌群丰度呈现自西向东逐渐降低的趋势；在各水平分类上，子囊菌门（Ascomycota）和担子菌门（Basidiomycota）为土壤优势真菌菌门，且西部半干旱平原区的子囊菌门类群显著高于中部半湿润平原区，担子菌门与之相反；粪壳菌纲（Sordariomycetes）为优势菌纲，呈现自东向西逐渐增加的趋势；酵母菌属（Guehomyces）是优势菌属，表现为：中部种植区 > 西部种植区 > 东部种植区。[结论] 吉林省玉米种植区土壤真菌类群变化的主要气候驱动因子是积温、无霜期和年均温度，土壤化学性质的主要驱动因子是土壤pH值。
[Objective] The main driving factors affecting soil fungal communities in the main maize production areas were explored in order to provide theoretical basis for the restoration of soil quality in Jilin Province.[Methods] Jilin Province was divided into the humid mountainous area in the east, the semi-humid plain area in the middle and the semi-arid plain area in the west, according to the ecological environment and climate factors. Soils of maize planting area in these three regions was taken as the main research object. The composition of soil fungal community was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology, and canonical correspondence analysis were employed to further analyze the effect of chemical properties, enzyme activity characteristics of soils and environmental factors on fungal communities.[Results] The differences in chemical properties and enzyme activities among the three ecological regions were significant. There was no significant difference in fungal diversity, and the abundance of fungi decreased gradually from west to east. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the dominant fungal groups in phylum levels, and the Ascomycota group in the western semi-arid plain was significantly higher than that in the central semi-humid plain area. In contrast, Basidiomycota had an opposite trend. Sordariomycetes was the dominant class, showing a increasing trend from east to west, Guehomyces was the dominant genus, which was showing as follows:central planting area > Western planting area > Eastern planting area.[Conclusion] Accumulated temperature, frost-free period and annual average temperature are the main climatic driving factors that influence the change of dominant groups of soil fungi, and soil pH value is the main driving factor of soil chemical properties.