[目的] 开展农村水环境治理绩效研究，为优化农村水环境治理提供理论参考。[方法] 以湖北省嘉鱼县、天门市、公安县的551份样本为例，通过农民满意度调查开展农村水环境治理绩效的有效测度。从"过程"和"结果"两个维度定量分析农村水环境治理绩效的影响因素，并运用代理变量法和工具变量法解决计量模型中潜在的内生性问题。[结果] ①受访者对当前农村水环境治理的总体满意度评价中，认为治理"一般"的农民最多，占比36.30%，认为治理"非常满意"的农民最少，占比3.27%；②"过程"维度中，生活垃圾集中收运、村庄旱厕改造、农作物秸秆处理、生活污水管网整修、生活垃圾设施整修、河道整修、工作人员队伍建设、水环境治理宣传、公众参与程度对农村水环境治理绩效的影响显著；③"结果"维度中，沟渠水质洁净度、坑塘水质洁净度对农村水环境治理绩效的影响显著。[结论] 乡村振兴战略实施背景下加大河流生态整治力度、加快铺设农村污水管网，并加强专业化人员队伍建设，畅通让农民参与治理的渠道是提升农村水环境的重要路径。
[Objective] The performance of rural water environment governance was studied in order to provide theoretical supports for optimizing rural water environment governance.[Methods] The rural water environment management performance was assessed based on the satisfaction survey of farmers, by using 551 samples from Jiayu, Tianmen and Gong'an of Hubei Province. Based on the conception of "process-result", the influencing factors of rural water environment governance performancewere explored, from the dimensions of "process" and "result". Agent variable and instrumental variable methods were employed to solve the potential endogenous problems in the econometric model.[Results] ①In the overall satisfaction evaluation of the current rural water environment treatment, most respondents rated it as "moderate", accounting for 36.30%, and only 3.27% of respondents considered it as "very satisfied"; ② Among the variables of process performance, the centralized collection and transportation of domestic waste, improvement of village dry toilet, treatment of crop straw, renovation of domestic waste facilities, riverway renovation, professional staff, publicity of water environment management, public participation and renovation of domestic sewage pipe network had significant influences on the performance of rural water environment governance; ③ For the variables of results performance, the water quality of ditches and ponds also had significant impacts on the performance of rural water environment governance.[Conclusion] In the context of the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, it is an important path to enhance the rural water environment by reinforcing river ecological reestablishment, speeding up the laying of rural sewage pipeline network, and strengthening the group management of professional personnel, as well as smoothing the channels.