[目的] 分析阿拉善高原荒漠区植物的科属组成、生活型和水分生态型、保护植物和资源植物，为高原荒漠植物资源合理开发利用、生物多样保护和生态环境修复等提供依据。[方法] 通过植被调查和查阅相关资料分析了阿拉善高原荒漠植物资源的科属组成、生活型、水分生态型和特殊物种。[结果] 阿拉善高原荒漠植物共有70科284属727种。从植物生活型来看，以多年生草本最多，其次是一、二年生草本和灌木；从水分生态型来看，中生植物最多，其次是旱生植物和旱中生植物。国家级及自治区级保护植物共有24种，世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)红色名录植物有26种，药用植物210种，饲用植物186种。[结论] 在阿拉善高原荒漠区，菊科、藜科、豆科和禾本科植物等为优势科，黄芪属、风毛菊属和蒿属等为优势属；以多年生草本为主,植物旱生化明显,珍稀濒危植物种类较多,资源植物十分丰富。在合理利用植物资源时，需要根据植物资源现存状态及其价值类型等进行管理和保护。
[Objective] The family and genus composition, life forms, water ecotypes, conservation plants, and resource plants among the plants in the Alxa Plateau desert area were analyzed in order to provide a basis for the rational development and utilization of desert plant resources, biodiversity protection, and ecological environment restoration on the plateau. [Methods] The composition of families and genera, life forms, water ecotypes, and special species of desert plants were analyzed through a vegetation survey and access to relevant information in the Alxa Plateau. [Results] There were 727 species of plants belonging to 284 genera and 70 families in the Alxa Plateau. Perennial herbs were the most common plant life forms, followed by annual herbs, biennial herbs, and shrubs. Mesophytes were the most abundant water ecotype, followed by xerophytes and mesoxerophytes. There were 24 national and autonomous regional protected plants, with 26 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list plants. Moreover, there were 210 medicinal plants and 186 forage plants. [Conclusion] In the desert area of the Alxa Plateau, Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae were the dominant families, while Astragalus, Saussurea, and Artemisia were the dominant genera. Most plants were perennial herbs. Plants exhibited obvious xerophytic characteristics. There were many rare and endangered plant species, and there were abundant resource plants. In order to rationally use plant resources, it is necessary to manage and protect them according to their existing status and value type.