[目的] 针对涝池近年来出现的水体富营养化现状，明确涝池污染特征和水质现状，为涝池水体净化研究和水环境保护提供科学依据。[方法] 选取陕西省咸阳市14个具有代表性的涝池，从涝池的面积、深度、蓄水状况、主体功能等方面出发，测定其水体PH，DO，TN，NH4+-N，NO3--N，TP，PO43--P的浓度，应用标准指数法和综合污染指数法综合分析涝池水质状况。[结果] ①调查区域的涝池水体污染与涝池管护缺失导致的外源污染严重和乡村居民农业生产活动造成的农业面源污染有关。②大部分涝池水质处于严重污染状态，无法满足农业用水及一般景观的用水标准，其中，磷类营养盐是水体污染的主要因子。[结论] 涝池水体污染具有农村生活污水的典型特点，应根据水体污染特点有针对性地选择适宜乡村环境的治理方式。
[Objective] In view of the current situation of water eutrophication in water storage ponds in recent years, the pollution characteristics and water quality status of water storage ponds were clarified in order to provide a scientific basis for water purification research and water environmental protection. [Methods] Measurements of pH value, dissolved oxygen (DO), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), total phosphorus (TP), and phosphate radical (PO43--P) in 14 representative water storage ponds in Xianyang City of Shaanxi Province were determined from the perspective of area, depth, water storage status, and main function of water storage ponds. The water quality of water storage ponds was analyzed by a standard index method and a comprehensive pollution index method. [Results] ① The water pollution of the water storage pond in the survey area was related to the serious external pollution caused by the lack of management and protection of the water storage pond, and was related to the agricultural non-point source pollution caused by the agricultural production activities of rural residents. ② The water quality of most water storage ponds was seriously polluted, and did not meet the water standards for agricultural water and general landscape water. Phosphorus nutrients were the main factor which resulted in water pollution. [Conclusion] The water pollution of water storage ponds has the typical characteristics of rural domestic sewage. Treatment methods suitable for the rural environment should be selected according to the characteristics of water pollution.